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Storage vs. Memory vs. Stack in Solidity & Ethereum

In this article we focus on the difference between storage, memory, and stack in Ethereum. We will also give a Solidity code sample and calculation examples.


Bitcoin Difficulty & Target Calculator

This calculator converts the bit value into the target.

Bit as decimal number:
Target as hexadecimal with padding:
Target as hexadecimal:
Target as decimal number:
Difficulty as decimal number:

An extensive explanation of the Bitcoin difficulty and how target, difficulty and bits are related can be found in this article: Bitcoin difficulty and Target

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Bitcoin Mining Difficulty & Target

Definition: The Bitcoin mining difficulty defines how hard it is to mine a new block. In average it takes ten minutes to mine a block.

A general explanation of the mining difficulty can be found here: There are two values we need to consider:

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Mining Difficulty Blockchain

Definition: The mining difficulty determines how long it takes in average (number of attempts) to find a suitable input set that results in a valid hash output in order to mine a block. Usually miners (in PoW) or block creators (PoS) are required to find a hash below a certain target.

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Block Reward – Blockchain

Block Reward Definition

The block reward in a blockchain is the payment a miner or block creator receives, if he finds a valid block (see mining). In Proof of Work systems it is also called mining reward.

The block reward serves as a remuneration of the miner or block creator for its work. It is therefore part of the incentive structure to keep the network safe.

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Blockchain & Bitcoin Mining

Explanation: Bitcoin Mining is the process of creating new coins while validating transactions and creating blocks. This is usually done by a proof of work (PoW) algorithm. But there are also other algorithms like proof of stake (PoS), delegated proof of Stake, proof of capacity (PoC), proof of elapsed time (PoET), etc.

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Bitcoin Proof of Work (PoW)

Definition: The Bitcoin proof of work is the underlying consensus algorithm for the bitcoin blockchain network. It aims to find a combination of predefined inputs which result in a hash value lower than a certain target threshold.

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Hash Functions – Overview & Explanation

Definition: A hash function is a function which takes a value of arbitrary length as input (preimage) and calculates an output (digest) of fixed length.

In this post we explain what hash functions are and how they work.

History Ethereum

History / Development of Ethereum

This post provides a collection of material dealing with the history and technical development of Ethereum.

Verifiable Random Number

Decentralized Verifiable Random Functions (VRN)

VRN = Verifiable Random Number

A VRN is a function that creates a random number in decentralized fashion. The Outcome of this function can be verified by thirdparties. This is important to confirmt that the resulting number is truely (pseudo)random.

Properties of VRN

Desired properties of a VRNs are:

  • Availability/ Livelines
  • Quantum Resistence
  • Verifiability
  • Unbiased
  • Unpredictability
  • Scaleability

Material / Ressources for Verifiable Random Functions (VRN)

Overview Ressources

XOR, Commit Verify, RANDAO, Hash Onions, Pedersens Scheme

  • Explains a solution to the last actor problem by using a threshold scheme from 6:15
  • BLS Threshold Signatures